What is Ethernet?

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Have you heard of IEEE 802.3? It has a long history and has to do with our topic today, Ethernet.

Ethernet is a communication standard that was developed in the early ’80s to network computers and other devices in a local environment such as a home or a building.

This local environment is defined as a LAN (Local Area Network) and it connects multiple devices so that they can create, store and share information with others in the location.

Ethernet is a wired system that started with using coaxial cable and has successfully progressed to now using twisted pair copper wiring and fiber optic wiring.

Let’s break for a trivia question. Who invented twisted pair wiring?
Alexander Graham Bell invented twisted pair wiring in 1881.

In 1983, Ethernet was standardized into the standard IEEE 802.3 by the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE).

This standard defined the physical layer and the MAC (media access control) portion of the data link layer of wired Ethernet.
These two layers are defined as the first two layers in the OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) model
The “physical” layer consists of the following components: Cabling and Devices.

First, let’s take a look at Ethernet Cabling;
As stated previously, Ethernet cables come as coaxial cable, which is not very common except in older installations, twisted pair, and fiber optic.

The most common cable is twisted pair cables, with the latest being Category 6 with speeds up to 1 Gbps and Cat6a and Cat 7 with speeds up to 10 Gbps.

Category 5 and 5e cables are both still used in many existing applications but handle the lower speeds between 10 Mbps to 100 Mbps but are more susceptible to noise.

The Ethernet twisted pair utilizes RJ-45 eight-pin connectors at either end of the cable that is pinned for transmitting and receiving data in either half or full-duplex mode.

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49 comments

  1. liqhters 20 June, 2020 at 02:30 Reply

    what does the cable connect to, isn't there a box that it goes to like internet. I look up ethernet because I want to buy it and when I look it up it just shows cables??

  2. Wolfie Playzzz 20 June, 2020 at 02:30 Reply

    I have a question my laptop won't connect to ANY Wi-Fi even with the correct passwords because an ethernet cable can't be found? Would buying one help?

  3. Dark ? 20 June, 2020 at 02:30 Reply

    Again another error on CSMA/CD. At no time has Ethernet ever sent out a test bit listening for a collision. When the media is quiet it transmits the entire frame (not packet, which is an upper layer concept, frames are structured according to HDLC concepts).

    During that transmission it listens for a collision. In the original specification the medium was coaxial cable known as 10base500. Segments could be up to 500m in length and upto five segments in series could be connected via repeaters. This constituted a collision domain. The problem was that another remote device upto 2.5Km away could just start transmitting at the same time, the transit delay of both transmissions would take time before both frames collided, that collision then takes time to propagate back down the medium to be detected by the transmitting devices.

    The worse case scenario was that the frame has almost reach the remote device (2.5km away) when it decides to transmit. The remote device would detect the collision almost immediately, but the collision has to propagate back down the media to the originating device 2.5Km away. Therefore the frame had to be a minimum of 5Km long. The round trip time was about 51.2micro seconds, which resulted in a frame having a minimum size of 512bits (larger in later higher speed networks)

    The rule of CSMA/CD was listen to the medium, is there a transmission in progress, if yes wait. When medium is quiet transmit data, whilst transmitting continue listening for a collision. When transmission is finished stop listening.

  4. OpzsGamer II 20 June, 2020 at 02:30 Reply

    Thx I didn't know it
    I asked a gamer
    How to play smoothly and no lag
    He replied
    Use ethernet cable
    Thanks to you I know now

  5. C Dawg 20 June, 2020 at 02:30 Reply

    Hey I know I’m a little late to this video and I might have missed it in the video but can is there a specific Ethernet cord I need depending on something in my pc or router or can I just get the fastest one?

  6. Flaming Moose 20 June, 2020 at 02:30 Reply

    Thank you. I'm trying to get certified to work in networking and using a textbook alone has been rough, but with your videos and visuals everything comes together and makes way more sense.

  7. Ankita Boruah 20 June, 2020 at 02:30 Reply

    This video is so great! Very informative and the diagrams help in visualizing the things in our minds.

  8. Cândido Pereira 20 June, 2020 at 02:30 Reply

    I know this protocol. It was a so much didactic explanation with a great animation. 🇧🇷

  9. SMM 20 June, 2020 at 02:30 Reply

    Good day

    Kindly why alot of videos not in paid account on realpars
    I already subscribed to annual plan but alot of videos not appear on my account and available for free on YouTube

  10. Andor Gunczer 20 June, 2020 at 02:30 Reply

    Wait,full duplex communication method doesn't use CSMA/CD anymore as it puts unnecessary load on the network.And without it, collisions cannot occur because the signals are running on different circuits (Devices "receive" on 1,2 and send on 3,6 for example).Tell me if I'm wrong it's just how I(!) know.

  11. timothy kearns 20 June, 2020 at 02:30 Reply

    Bell invented twisted-pair wiring to counteract capacitance found in non-twisted pairs. "Loading" coils were also added at pre-determined distances. XL and XC cancel themselves out in tuned (resonant) circuits, making the "load" purely resistive. Telephone lines weren't "resonant", but every little bit helped….oops…..XL and XC are inductive and capacitive reactance, respectively. If I've made any errors, please advise…….I retired almost 9-years ago, and my memory of such things is flagging.

  12. Linton Thomas 20 June, 2020 at 02:30 Reply

    Hi can I connect an Ethernet gateway to a solid state state relay to turn it on or off from a computer or smartphone??

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